When it comes to the Chinese civilization of Chinese historical cities, xi ‘an and luoyang have always been popular, but are you familiar with tianshui with a history of 8,000 years?
Tianshui, it is one of the important birthplace of Chinese civilization, is the birthplace of qin people, the early qin culture, known as the “hometown of emperor xi stem”, has a history of more than 3000 years of written records and more than 2700 years history of the city, but with the discovery of ruins of the bay, 8000 years of civilization to today we see the Chinese civilization has splendid civilization in the neolithic period.
But in tianshui, the most can not miss the ruins of the Chinese civilization is the maijishan grottoes. It ranks with the mogao grottoes, yungang grottoes and longmen grottoes as the four largest grottoes in China.
A trip to tianshui, let me found the maiji mountain grottoes, which made me very excited. Then 8,000 years of civilization history from the subsequent journey slowly spread out, I have an undeniable good impression of tianshui. Among them, maijishan has taught me for a long time can not forget, the next day to tianshui, straight to here.
Maijishan grottoes, built in the late qin dynasty, has a history of more than 1600 years, and then through the northern wei, western wei, northern zhou, sui, tang, five dynasties, song, yuan, Ming and qing dynasties continued to excavate and expand, thus becoming one of the oldest grottoes in China. With the exception of natural disasters (such as earthquakes), maijishan grottoes have hardly been looted or damaged.
Today, the east cliff, the west cliff, the east cliff has preserved 54 caves, the west cliff 140. Visitors can visit the focus in the east cliff, such as the famous nibbana grottoes, qianfo corridor, sanhua upstairs seven Buddha pavilion grottoes, not only complete but also exquisite, people enjoy the art at the same time, can not help but be shocked by the technology of ancient craftsmen.
Among them, seven Buddha pavilion can be said to be the maiji mountain grottoes in all open areas, the most beautiful, spectacular one. It not only reflects the maturity of architectural technology in the northern zhou dynasty, but also reflects the extraordinary performance of buddhist art in the northern zhou dynasty.
In the west cliff, there are ten thousand buddhas, paradise cave and other grottoes, among which grottoes 121, 133, 127 and 165 are the most valuable. The “Oriental smile” in the legend is in grottoes 133, known as the “Oriental Mona Lisa” “smiling little novice monk”. It would never have been possible to imagine that sculptural skill had reached this level more than 1,500 years ago without witnessing it once.
But unfortunately, this art is really precious, not ordinary people can see, the cave will not open easily. But to my sorrow, I went twice but could not find out where cave 133 was on the western cliff.
Fortunately, the other grottoes still make me excited. Maijishan grotto art is famous at home and abroad for its exquisite clay sculpture art, which has the reputation of “Oriental sculpture art exhibition hall”. Located in the east cliff of the scattered flowers upstairs visible fresco, although incomplete, but can clearly see the “flying apsaras” exquisite, this exquisite degree is no less than dunhuang.
In order to learn more about the maijishan grottoes, I returned from the first trip and bought books about the maijishan grottoes (close to academic knowledge) and related books about the grottoes of the northern dynasty. After reading them, I went on the second trip to tianshui.
The accumulation of knowledge and the discovery of the old place made me have a deeper desire for cultural exploration of maijishan grottoes. This is no longer a simple visit to the grottoes. In terms of religion, art, architecture and other aspects of the grottoes, I am not only more respectful than the first time, but also deeply feel the historical charm of maijishan grottoes.
You will find that the grotto art of each period has evolved and blended with many foreign cultures at the same time, such as the flying apsaras culture, which is formed by the fusion of Indian buddhist gods and Chinese Taoist gods. The figures of each dynasty were obviously different in shape, face and dress.
Since the northern wei dynasty was the period when maijishan grottoes were developed, many clay figurines showed a different style from that of other periods, such as slender figures, handsome faces and smooth lines. These figures were mainly influenced by the central plains culture, and were mainly dominated by baoyibodai and xiuguqing images.
The most representative grottoes are 121, 127, 133, 135, 142 and so on. At that time, some tourists saw the clay sculptures of the northern wei dynasty. They described the period of the northern wei dynasty as poor and poor.
In the western wei dynasty, clay figurines were mostly xiu-guqing figurines. In the northern zhou dynasty, on the basis of inheriting the characteristics of the western wei dynasty, the clay figurines were changed into the style of “short and beautiful”, which opened up the rich and mellow statues in the tang dynasty.
If you can carefully look at all the grottoes on maiji mountain, you will find that today’s technology is so high that it is still not as good as the ancient people’s aesthetics and crafts, and on the contrary, it is backward and vulgar. Maijishan grottoes as one of the most important Chinese heritage, its value and importance is self-evident. I hope everyone has a sense of reverence for history in the face of their ancestors’ art.
1. There are tour buses (no. 34) to the scenic spot every 20 minutes at the railway station of meji district, tianshui every day.
2. Maijishan grottoes are very close to tianshui airport and high-speed railway station.
3. There is no need to store bags, bags and cameras in the scenic spot. Note that when you come across a grotto in low light, don’t turn on your camera flash to get a “bright” shot, as this is damaging cultural relics.
4. The opening hours of the scenic spot are from 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m.
5. Since maijishan grottoes are not pure natural landscape, nor are they modern man-made scenery, it is recommended to invite an interpreter to learn about their history and art.
Admission: 70 yuan, half price for 60-year-old people and students.
8. There are special areas for eating snacks and delicacies in the scenic spot, and special flavors are recommended such as tianshui quack, jiangshui, tianshui chowder, etc.
9, because the grottoes cut in the cliff high and middle end, tourists need to continue to climb up the plank road, because the plank road is narrow, remember to visit at the same time, must pay attention to safety. When encountering a large flow of people, avoid in time, pull over and wait, do not want to hard jam hard squeeze.